The Barbary Pirate Fort was the entrance to the Old City

A Libyan woman in her barracan

A good rest that first night in Tripoli would do wonders, especially for the young girl I was. Sunshine and new places to explore revived my spirits. We ate breakfast in the hotel dining room, a sizeable oval room that jutted out into Tripoli harbor and offered a view of ships and sailboats with the ocean in the near distance. Best of all, there was a tunnel under the street leading to the restaurant. My sister and I skipped through the tunnel, admiring the paintings and an aquarium filled with vividly colored fish, all of it relieving the white monotony of the tunnel’s well-lit walls. As I was approaching my thirteenth birthday, I was soon to admire the restaurant more for its attractive young Italian waiters than the view or the charm of the tunnel.

In an expansive mood that first morning, my father announced plans to take his family on a “gharry” (an Indian word for buggy) ride to explore our new home.  Gharries in Tripoli were horse-drawn open vehicles with large wheels, like carriages of old. I never questioned how an Indian word was being used in an Arab country once run by Italians.

The Libyan driver, shod in sandals and eager for business, stood on the hotel driveway in front of his gharry.  He was dressed simply in baggy white pants and shirt, a black vest, and a burgundy-colored close-fitting cotton hat with a tab in the middle, which reminded me of a beanie. The small, well-used black gharry was hitched to a lean brown horse.  Though the driver had a limited knowledge of English, he understood my father’s wish that we be driven around both the new and the old city.

As we seated ourselves on bench seats facing each other, the gharry pulled out onto the lightly traveled harbor boulevard with the musical Italian name Lungomare, which means along the sea. A bright sun sparkled off the harbor’s blue water, and a gentle sea breeze blew the fronds of the palm trees that lined the curving street on both sides. We passed along the edge of the new city headed for the old Barbary Pirate fort at the west end of the harbor, a distance of only ten long blocks. The new city gleamed: white, modern-looking and flat-roofed, enchanting us with its Arabian touches of mosque, minaret and arabesque decoration.

Within a few blocks we passed the Italian Cathedral, a grand edifice of granite with its own cross-embellished high dome and adjacent tower. It might have been lifted straight out of Italy. The Italians, who had first settled in Libya in 1911, had been an important part of the country’s recent history.  They ruled the country until World War II changed everything, and the United Nations granted Libya independence after the war.

The horse led the gharry past the Fountain of the Gazelle, a small traffic circle surrounded by tall palms in the middle of the boulevard. The circular fountain contained the statue of a seated nude woman, her right hand caressing the neck of a gazelle, which resembles a small horned deer, as she gazes into its eyes.

A short distance further, we were all impressed with an immense, three-storied white edifice surrounded by the ubiquitous palm. Resembling a princely palace, it had squared towers at all four corners. A taller squared tower, with finials on each of its corners, greeted guests from the center front of the gracious building. All its many windows were arched. Checking his guidebook, my father announced that it was the Grand Hotel, too fancy for his budget.  But not too fancy for Vice President Richard Nixon, who in the mid-fifties was on a worldwide public relations tour for President Eisenhower, or for Sophia Loren and John Wayne, who stayed there while making a desert film, “Legend of the Lost,” a couple of years later.

We were soon approaching the old city boundary, the Barbary Pirate fort.  Also known as the Castle, it contained a hodgepodge of rooms displaying an assortment of old relics from pirate days as well as artifacts from Libyan history. The highest walls of the oddly shaped, but mostly rectangular stone structure projected toward the harbor. Its upper story had several large arched openings; on the harbor side cannons projected through these arches, the same ones that had fired at U.S. Marines in 1801. The Barbary Pirates managed to sink several Navy ships. The five Marine casualties were buried in a local cemetery and celebrated by Americans every July 4th (until all American service personnel left in 1970). Tripoli is the famous city in the Marine Corps song with its words – “from the halls of Monteczuma to the shores of Tripoli.”

The horse and driver led us through an archway of the fort as we passed into the old city. The difference between old and new was apparent right away; here the streets and crumbling buildings were narrow and old. Tiny homes and shops, no longer whitewashed and neat as in the new city, were crowded together. It was alive with people: Arab men and women going about their business. Many of the men were dressed like the gharry driver, but others were in more traditional garb. Besides a shirt, very baggy trousers and sandals, they wore a light cloth wound around the head and over it a roughly textured brown or white covering, called a barracan, which draped around head and shoulders and ended below the knees. I later heard an unverified rumor that their loose trousers, with the crotch hanging almost to the knees, were designed that way to catch the prophet Mohammed, who, when he was reborn, would be born to a man. Women were carefully enclosed in a similar flowing white garment, but it covered them from head to toe, only the right eye and bare feet in sandals peeped out at the world.

Still traveling along the harbor, we could see working fishermen seated along the sand at the water’s edge repairing fishing nets; others were bundling their nets into small fishing boats. The pungent smell of dead fish was pervasive. Some of these same fisherman turned their attention to flying creatures a year or so later when Tripoli was host to an invasion of locusts. They were considered a delicacy, and Libyan men would eagerly gather the winged bugs that had landed along the sea wall, putting them into bags to take home to eat, perhaps after roasting them over a fire.

The Libyan woman painting is courtesy of a fellow student at Wheelus High School, perhaps Chad Langdon. Pardon my lack of proper acknowledgment.


  1. Jane Stallcup Rampona says:

    Just came across a photo of my sister and I, aged five and six, playing dress-up in the barracans my mother bartered for in Old Town Tripoli. Here we are, in our neighborhood, Georgian Populi, just a block from the Mediterranean with a British friend and an American friend. We were dressed (wrapped) by a Libyan, but we’re obviously having trouble keeping that little triangles in place, where the one eye peeps out lol! If you’ll accept my Facebook request, you see the pic. I don’t know how to upload it here. Thanks for the memories of Tripoli you post here.

  2. Hello Jane,

    Your family name sounds familiar, but my father was Lt. Col. Artha Darby Williams, Corps of Engineers at Wheelus. I think he was in charge of the Corps then but not the base commander. Would love to see any photos you have. What you said about Georgimpopuli makes perfect sense. How old were you in Tripoli?

  3. Jane Rampona says:

    Hi Victoria, I’m sorry to have missed your question. My father was Captain Edward Stallcup, navigator. I remember your father greeting us at the Officer’s Club right after we arrived in Libya. It stood out in my memory because my parents told me afterward that he was the base commander. I did a little research and I believe Georgimpopuli was really Georgian Populi (people) since the Georgians were allocated land in Libya after WWll and they probably lived in the Italianvills there.

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  9. Hasan Karayam says:

    it is very interesting to read about Tripoli. I follow you in all places you described precisely in the post, since I know all of them. I am from Libya. I am PhD student in history at Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. my dissertation is Libyan American relations 1951-1969. part of my dissertation is about Wheelus Field. So, I am working on Oral History of Wheelus Field Project. Can you help me to collect primary information from you about Wheelus by conducting oral interview with you. I will be appreciated your help. if so, you can connect me by my email: [email protected].

  10. Thanks for reading, Jane. Your Stallcup name sounds familiar for some reason. Was your father in the military? Would love to hear more about your life and what you remember. You may have known my sister, Joan Tupper Williams, born in 1949 and went to Wheelus Elementary.

  11. Jane Rampona says:

    I loved reading this! I lived in Georgimpopuli in 1957-58 and was in first grade at Wheelus Elementary. Tripoli was a fascinating place to live. Good writing–you took me back there!
    Jane Stallcup Rampona

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